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This is an article by Mark Metcalf discussing Rosemary Jacobs and her claims that colloidal silver caused her argyria and is the cause of argyria in general.  It is very informative.  This article was written in 2001 and is in ISSUE 4,  VOLUME 3 of NEWSLETTER FOR SILVER PROTECTS.  Mark's website is www.silverprotects.com
 

 

Ty∑rant \ítirent\ n -s [ME tyran, tirant, tirand, fr. OF tyran, tyrant, fr. L tyrannus, fr. Gk tyrannos] 1a: an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or constitution; often: a usurper of sovereignty b obs: a ruling personage (as a prince or governor) c: a ruler who exercises absolute power oppressively or brutally: DESPOT 2 a: a person in a position of control who exercises unlawful or improper authority or lawful or proper authority in an arbitrary or oppressive manner: one who by unfair or unreasonable demands or rigorous exploitation imposes burdens and hardships on those under his control - Websterís Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged, copyright 1993

In Support of Medical Murder

The Rosemary Jacobs/FDA Story

Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall determine what is science? Nowhere.

Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall define what is medicine? Nowhere.

Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall determine who is fit to practice medicine? Nowhere.

Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall determine what is safe and effective? Nowhere.

Even if the government could accurately and completely determine the outer boundaries of what is medicine, which any thinking individual knows is an impossibility, the government still has no constitutional right to ram its conclusions down the throats of the citizenry. If you want to hire a witch doctor to cure your headaches, thatís your constitutional right. But Rosemary Jacobs feels differently.

Who Is Rosemary Jacobs?

Rosemary Jacobs has become a familiar name and face to many Americans due to her dramatic countenance and the promotional efforts of the Food and Drug Administration, who put her on national prime time news. There can be no doubt that in Jacobs, the FDA has found a powerful propaganda tool. Adopting the role of a rueful sage, Jacobs is now widening her original efforts to suppress the publicís access to colloidal silver by attacking the validity of alternative health itself. The complete version of her published account can be found on the Internet at http://homepages.togethernet/~rjstan/. What follows is almost a point-by-point rebuttal of The Rosemary Jacobs Story.

I hope that my wide-ranging review will prompt others to take a closer look at this strange tale of contradictions.

"The falsification of history has done more to impede human development than any one thing known to mankind."

-- Jean-Jacques Rousseau

The Rosemary Jacobs Story

Rosemary Jacobs begins with the statement, "For forty years I tried to blend into the crowd, but when I discovered that the quacks were back, I knew that I couldnít do that anymore. I had to stand up and shout, ĎLook at me! Iím gray.í I had to warn the public."

She goes on to say that when she was eleven years old, her mother took her to an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist on Long Island because she always had a cold. The MD prescribed nose drops that contained silver with instructions to take them intermittently as needed.

Here we find the first oddity. At the beginning, Jacobs makes reference to quacks, but in the second paragraph we learn it was a icensed medical doctor who prescribed her nose drops. The oddity is compounded by the fact that the joint media campaign by Jacobs and the FDA was for the express purpose of restricting over-the-counter access to colloidal silver. In other words, it can have no effect, nor was it ever intended to have any effect, on licensed doctors who prescribe silver remedies for their patients; therefore, it will have no effect on the circumstances that led to her argyria.

A picture then appears with Rosemary as a pretty young girl with her mother and the family dog. The story continues by saying that one day, some three years later, a nurse, who was also a pharmacist, stopped Jacobs and asked why she was "that color," meaning slate-gray. Her answer was that no one, including herself, had noticed before.

I know some readers have found it hard to believe that a fourteen-year-old girl would not notice her complexion had become gray. As one woman put it, "It sounds impossible to me that nobody, including herself, would not have noticed her turning gray. Teenage girls do nothing but stare at their face all day!" One would think that Mom and Dad might also have noticed when their daughter lost her color without the help of a nurse who is also a pharmacist. However, if the change in her face was gradual enough, and mild enough, I suppose it could have happened.

But, according to the story, the change was not mild. "Suddenly everyone noticed. I was slate-gray." This means that her parents, along with her schoolteachers and everyone else, did not notice. Go to the Rosemary Jacobs web site and take a good look at her color pictures. Now try to imagine the scenario her story describes. I find it difficult to do.

One of the hallmarks of a professional writer is theyíll often work God into the story. This device helps to underscore a particular value or higher truth. It creates a kind of invulnerability to support a key premise that cannot be questioned. In many cases this is accomplished with a surrogate, such as a catholic priest, which accounts for the high percentage of priests and nuns in Hollywood movies.

Continuing with the Rosemary Jacobs story, "This time (the) Sister greeted me with ĎYouíre taking nose drops, arenít you?í I told her I was. ĎStop,í she said. ĎThey have silver in them. Thatís why youíre gray.í" Yes, the nurse who is also a pharmacist is also a nun. Interestingly, this representative of God literally commands the reader to "Stop" using silver medicinals.

In the next paragraph Jacobs sees a dermatologist who confirms the diagnosis of the nurse/pharmacist/nun as argyria, a permanent, irreversible skin discoloration caused by the ingestion of silver. "A biopsy confirms the diagnosis by showing all the little specks of silver in the skin." Despite the fact that she started off by saying "the quacks are back," a reference tied to her own childhood doctor, Jacobs inexplicably softens at this point in her story. "I never really wanted to sue the doctor. He was a good person who made a tragic mistake. He read the ads from drug companies instead of the medical literature."

Actually, the "drug companies" didnít want to market silver products because they were not profitable enough. It was left to individual doctors who had a keen appreciation of the efficacy of silver to create and market their own products. One example would be Dr. Henry Crookes. A contemporary example would be Dr. A. B. Flick, of Argentum Research.

Under the heading "Old Garbage," Jacobs continues, "All kinds of silver medicinals, as well as many other dubious and noxious drugs, were used by desperate physicians before the advent of antibiotics.Any student of history can tell you how ineffective they were."

Who Wrote the Rosemary Jacobs Story?

In reading Rosemary Jacobsí story, I was struck by a number of troubling inconsistencies. They reminded me of a story I heard some years ago.

I know a man who is a professional writer. Iíve been to two dinner parties at his home, which sits in an exclusive area overlooking a major city. One of the guests informed me that the host wrote the biographies that March of Dimes used in their fund-raisers. Later, over dinner, I said to our host, "I canít believe it. That stuff is made up? How do you do it?" He said, "Well, they give me a stack of pictures (of crippled children) to look through and then I just pick one I like and write a story around it. Theyíre one of my best clients and their fund-raisers are always very successful."

Did the FDA hire a professional PR writer to create a story that promotes a specific FDA agenda and wrap it around Rosemary Jacobs? Jacobs says she is not a professional writer and thatís easy to believe when reading the bulk of her web page. However, I find her writing greatly improved when reading the skillfully crafted work of the The Rosemary Jacobs Story. Read my review of The Rosemary Jacobs Story for a long list of inconsistencies.

 

These sentences rely heavily on the ubiquitous propaganda of modern medicine as the pinnacle of unbiased science and reason. However, itís a statistical fact that the mortality rate drops whenever modern hospitals go on strike. This means that hospitals routinely kill more people than they save. Antibiotics play a major role in that mortality.

The next sentence in the Jacobs story introduces a strange acronym. "Colloidal silver (CSP) is not a new alternative remedy." An acronym should use the same letters as the words from which it derives. This acronym is based on a term invented by the FDA called "colloidal silver preparations." Itís a meaningless phrase designed to put all silver medicinals in one bag. Notice that the author was forced to use real words in the sentence so that the reader can get a handle on just what a CSP is supposed to be.

One has to wonder why Rosemary Jacobs would add "CSP" after sheís already used the words "colloidal silver." At the very least, it implies that the FDA made alterations in the Jacobs story before it was released to the press. CSP happens to be a crucial element for furthering the FDA agenda of restricting the publicís access to colloidal silver.Why? Because colloidal silver is nontoxic. Therefore, the FDA needs a way to erase the medical distinctions between colloidal silver and other highly concentrated chemical compounds of silver that can be toxic if ingested. Without this device, colloidal silver cannot be attacked on the grounds of being dangerous. Interestingly, the very next sentence does exactly that.

"It is an old, discarded tradition, one that homeopaths and other people calling themselves Ďalternative healthcare practitionersí have pulled out of the garbage pail of useless and dangerous drugs and therapies, things mainstream medicine threw away decades ago."

I understand why the FDA doesnít like homeopaths - because the medicines they use are absolutely nontoxic and canít be controlled by the FDA. But why is Rosemary Jacobs angry at homeopaths and alternative healthcare providers? She wasnít even mad at the licensed MD who gave her argyria. Nor is there any evidence that Jacobs has ever seen a homeopath or alternative health physician. Even if argyria is possible from taking colloidal silver -which has never been proven - homeopathic medicines are so extremely dilute that even the cosmetic condition of argyria would not be possible under any circumstances, period.

No explanation is given for Jacobsís attack on homeopaths and alternative health-care practitioners whom she accuses of taking their remedies from a "garbage pail of useless and dangerous drugs."

Jacobs also makes the statement that mainstream medicine threw away useless and dangerous drugs and therapies decades ago. The United States Office of Technology Assessment does not agree, reporting, "Only 10 to 20 percent of all medical procedures currently used in allopathic medical practice have been shown to be efficacious by controlled trial." Jacobs must have also missed the Journal of the American Medical Associationís report that more than 100,000 Americans were killed in 1994 by FDAapproved drugs, and another 2,200,000 were seriously injured. The research was conservative in that it focused only on correctly prescribed drugs and only on people who died in hospitals. In other words, nearly one percent of the entire nation was either killed or seriously injured in one year from FDA-approved drugs. Even though similar statistics turn up in studies year after year, no one from the FDA ever goes to jail. It appears that the FDA policy-makers and the drug company leaders - who often are the same people by way of a busily revolving door - are above the law because they are the law.

The Dangers of Antibiotics

Children probably suffer the most from antibiotics.. These drugs are known to cause changes in the diameter of the eye in some children and have created an epidemic of earaches, asthma and other autoimmune dysfunction that, in conjunction with other toxic medications such as asthma inhalers, have killed many children. The extreme overuse of antibiotics has also turned modern hospitals into prolific breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

All too often, patients who merely walked into a hospital for routine tests have literally died after becoming accidentally infected with multi-drug resistant bacteria. Itís a slow, horrible death that colloidal silver can easily prevent.

 

Jacobs goes on to quote from several articles that were very critical of intranasal silver medications because some cases of argyria had resulted. Jacobs then says, "In searching that literature for thirty years I have never found any evidence that silver in a personís body benefits anyone other than the quack who sold it." Jacobs must have skipped over "Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with Electrically Generated Silver Ions" - R.O. Becker, MD, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American volume, October 1978. Vol. 60-A, No. 7. I quoted from this article extensively in my article, "Banishing Disease With Three 9-Volt Batteries, Pt. 2." (The reader will find 183 studies that Jacobs missed listed at the end of this article. Itís unlikely that t hese studies represent a complete list of all silver medical studies.)

Continuing, "If, in fact, it did do all the wonderful things that the promoters claim, Queen Victoria and the Rockefellers would still be alive and they would be gray like me." Interestingly enough, Queen Victoria used a homeopath as her personal physician, as do many Europeans, and the queen did indeed live to a ripe old age without turning gray. As for the Rockefellers, John D. Rockefeller lived in excellent health to the age of 95 as did his son John D. Jr., who died at age 86. Both attributed their good health to a frugal diet of natural food, the advice of a homeopathic doctor only, and the complete avoidance of synthetic drugs.

As the story continues, Jacobs delivers lines that are tailor made for the FDAís agenda to label colloidal silver a dangerous and unapproved drug. "In 1995 I discovered that CSP, one of the drugs that causes argyria, was again being aggressively promoted." Here we see the CSP acronym again. "CSP" is supposed to include colloidal silver.We also see the statement that this pure mineral element in water is a "drug," and that it causes argyria. (The date, 1995, is personally interesting in that it coincides with my first published article on colloidal silver in a national magazine. She appears to be quoting from that article in the next sentence except for the word "cure" which I did not use.) Jacobs continues with, "They also claimed that it was a pre-1938 OTC (over-the-counter drug) that cures 650 specific conditions and diseases such as cancer, AIDS, acne, and lupus."

Colloidal silver was indeed a pre-1938 OTC remedy.Medical books from the period reveal colloidal silver to be in common use as far back as 1850. The 650 conditions were the results of studies conducted by Dr. Harry Margraf, which was reported on in the March, 1978 issue of Science Digest. Dr.Margraf ís studies showed that silver remedies were effective for more than 650 different disease conditions.While AIDS was not on that list in 1978, I have heard anecdotal evidence that colloidal silver is very effective for people with full-blown AIDS. In addition, a friend, Joan Shallack,MD, PhD, reported to me that colloidal silver was helpful for her lupus.While this may be anecdotal, I suspect Dr. Shallack knew what she was talking about. Dr. Bjorn Nordstrom, at Swedenís National Institutes of Health (Karolinska Institute), has used silver in his cancer cure treatments, which he said brought rapid remission in patients given up by other doctors. I also found studies in which very severe and advanced forms of cancer were cured by a prominent Chicago physician with colloidal gold. Those studies are circa 1935 and are cited in my book.

The Jacobs story then accuses health food stores of "deliberately lying to sell their product." Jacobs adds, "The response I got from the owner of a store that sells the stuff was pretty typical. I told him that my skin is gray from the ingestion of silver adding that silver in my body has never benefited me."Earlier in the story Jacobs said she used a silver nasal spray for three years for her colds.Why would she go through the trouble of regularly using a medication for three years that never worked?

Jacobs also says she canít remember whether the nasal spray was colloidal silver, silver nitrate, or some other chemical compound of silver. Her lapse of memory during those three years works out very neatly for the FDA agenda and their Orwellian "CSP," which erases the truth about colloidal silver and the many distinctions that exist among a large variety of silver medicinals.

Researching Rosemary Jacobsí medical history I found more anomalies. The New England Journal of Medicine, May 20, 1999, Vol. 340, No. 20, reports the following on Rosemary Jacobsí case, "The facial pigmentation was diffuse until the age of 36, but it became patchy after dermabrasion." Interestingly, I have seen two different looking pictures of Jacobs, one where she looks bluish with some patchiness and another where she looks like sheís been painted slate-gray. In the case of the latter, where is the patchiness caused some twenty years ago by the dermabrasion? Is it possible that her complexion later became more evenly gray?

Returning to her story we find, "I had breast cancer at the age of 42." It turns out that Jacobs went the orthodox route for her cancer in 1984, six years after the dermabrasion.What is a possible cosmetic side effect of radiation and chemotherapy? Turning slate-gray. It happened to a neighbor of mine a few years ago. She looked a lot like Rosemary Jacobs, only she didnít wear red lipstick to heighten the effect. In the case of Jacobs, how can anyone know whether theyíre seeing argyria, or cosmetic side effects of her cancer treatment, or some combined effect?

Returning to Jacobsí story, under the heading "Old Quacks," she begins the character assassination of physicians and chemists from the past who used silver remedies. She refers to Dr. Henry Crookes without a title, as if heís just some guy. "Henry Crookes was a pioneer CSP manufacturer in England at the turn of the century." This becomes a trend in her "research" of the "old quacks." Then she delivers a very interesting quote from the 1919 Journal of the American Medical Associationís Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, which ruled that collosol argentum, along with several other Crookesí Laboratory products, were "inadmissible to New and Nonofficial Remedies," because, "In the few cases in which the therapeutic claims for these preparations were examined, the claims were found to be so improbable or exaggerated as to have necessitated the rejection of these products."

In the few cases in which the therapeutic claims for these preparations were examined, the claims were found to be so improbableÖ It sounds as if they didnít bother to try the products and some were not even looked at. I assume this is evidence of the campaign to eliminate silver medicinals from the United States in the early twentieth century.

Next, we have quotes from someone by the name of A. Legge Roe, whom I assume is also a medical doctor minus his title, courtesy of Rosemary Jacobsí research. "A. Legge Roe did write about the great success he had treating gonorrheal opthamalia with collosol argentum. (One of the medicines the 1919 Journal of the American Medical Associationís Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry didnít want to try in the previous paragraph. - author) He also stated, ĎIt is the most useful preparation that has been placed in our hands since the introduction of cocaine.í"

The reference to cocaine is apparently supposed to discredit Dr. Roe and to make him look like a medical barbarian. Personally it does not surprise me that a powerful drug like cocaine, or heroin, as in morphine, might have some application in the field of medicine.

Returning to the Jacobs story, we now find a chemist without a degree. "In 1939 Hartman, a chemist not a medical doctor, included a chapter on colloids in medicine in his chemistry book. (I assume Jacobs made special mention of the fact that Hartman was not a medical doctor because he probably had a doctorate in chemistry, and, therefore, the title, Dr. Hartman, which was later deleted from her story.) On p. 536 he said that CSP is safe enough to be put into the eyes and nose." Since "CSP" didnít exist in 1939, I suspect that is not what he said. However, thanks to Jacobsí switching of meaningful words (colloidal silver, silver nitrate, whatever he actually wrote) with a non-meaningful acronym (CSP, or all silver remedies), the entire sentence is now devoid of any useful information. Continuing, "He also stated on the same page that, ĎIntramuscular injections of colloidally suspended lead are of value in arresting certain cancerous growths.í"

Personally, Iíd take the lead any day before submitting to the overwhelming toxicity of radiation, especially if Dr. Hartman was getting good results. Lead is almost at the bottom of the toxic substances list, and cancer is a serious, life-threatening disease. Cancer is in a very different class of medical conditions from say, a toothache. Mercury is at the number two spot of toxic substances, right underneath plutonium. Today we are told there is no problem in putting mercury in our mouths and in our childrenís mouths by way of dental fillings. If, however, your filling falls out and you throw it in a field, you can be arrested, just the same as if you were dumping plutonium, because mercury is that toxic.

Please note we do not agree with Mr. Metcalf regarding the toxicity of lead but we are leaving his article in its entirety rather that edit content.  Lead is a very dangerous substance indeed and is responsible for many deaths.  However the main thrust of his article is regarding argyria.

SilverGen

Under the heading "Misquoted Reputable Authors," Jacobs says, "Another article about silver that colloidal silver promoters often referred to was one by Jim Powell which appeared in the March 1978 edition of the now defunct popular magazine Science Digest. They always referred to it as ĎOur Mightiest Germ Fighter.í When I tracked down the magazine, I discovered that the article didnít mention colloidal silver and that the full title was, ĎPerhaps it soon will be recognized as OUR MIGHTIEST GERM FIGHTER.í Why do you think promoters never mention the first half of the title? Could it be because they know that the promise never materialized and they donít want readers to find out?"

Thereís a good reason why they donít mention it. In fact, there are three good reasons. 1. The Xerox made from the microfilm at the library is very poor quality and the smaller beginning subtitle in the magazine appears over a large graphic of a silver nugget. It just looks like a big black square that is literally unreadable. Most people finding it at the library would not even know the subtitle was there. 2. There are actually two different subtitles for the article in the magazine. In the table of contents the subtitle and title read, "Silver: Emerging As Our Mightiest Germ Fighter." So which subtitle are people supposed to use? 3. Itís completely inconsequential. Obviously, Jacobs, or whoever wrote this, is trying to smear the alternative health field. But, since when does everyone scrupulously quote subtitles?

The truth about the Science Digest article is that it was very enthusiastic about the research of Dr. Harry Margraf, who demonstrated onclusively the inherent medical properties of silver in eliminating over 650 different disease conditions, including multi-drug resistant bacteria, which are presently responsible for tens of thousands of deaths in hospitals every year. The thrust of the article was that itís about time the public became aware that "silver is the best all around germ-fighter we have." The article also pointed out that this is why the space shuttle uses silver in its water purification system.

Under the heading "1990ís Snake Oil," Jacobs continues with an attack on health food stores. "Some drinking water contains silver. At what concentration of silver does drinking water turn into CSP? Iíve never been able to get a salesperson to tell me this." This is hardly surprising. since "CSP" is a meaningless term. Allow me to substitute my own madeup word and ask the question again. At what concentration of silver does drinking water turn into Bingbong? Iíve never been able to get a salesperson to tell me this.

The Rosemary Jacobs story finally ends on the following ominous note, "I believe this is ample proof that individuals and doctors are not capable of determining whether or not a drug is safe and effective." Do you see the intent? You are not capable of determining what is safe and effective in the same way that a dog cannot be taught how to write its name with a ballpoint pen. Itís just not possible. Even doctors will no longer be allowed to make their own determinations of what is safe and effective. Like you, they are merely humans and thatís no longer good enough. Why, they could develop the mistaken idea that drugs are toxic, or that death is not helpful for some patients!

In reality, the Rosemary Jacobs story is a carefully constructed tower, where every brick is laid on behalf of its owner, architect and soon-to-be resident. The stage is being set for a new high priest to come to town. Someone who will own the human body the way cattle ranchers own cattle. The anointed oneís initials can be commonly found, carved into the backs of Americans in every morgue across the land. F.D.A.


TESTIMONIAL LETTER

My sister was treated with mega doses of antibiotics when flesh-eating bacteria got loose in the hospital. All her teeth had to be pulled because of a reaction to the antibiotics. So I checked Mother Earth News and found your book. The colloidal silver healed my sister. Made a new person out of her. She healed up in half the time.

My mother, who has been treated for a stroke with herbal, homeopathy, reflexology and hydrotherapy also improved. Eyes brightened, talking and laughing, her walking distance doubled in three weeks.

My stomach acid problem has greatly improved. The colloidal silver allows me to drink orange juice.With the first dose I felt a spot in my stomach react immediately. Plus, an old eye injury healed up the first week.

I recently applied for a job at a hospital - I am a Registered Reflexologist and Naprapath. I was hired as a Clinical Support assistant. However, I learned I was expected to have 24 vaccinations. I declined and I did not get the job.

While in another state, I cut my finger and got four stitches. I declined the Tetanus -Diphtheria because of past allergic reactions. The hospital called my personal physician and had my records marked "failed to comply."

That was when I learned my physician had entered my records in a statewide computer system without my permission. I fired my physician! Now the hospital has threatened they will cause "trouble" for me.

We are enjoying your book. Colloidal silver seems miraculous and I wonder why Iíve not heard of it sooner.

S.R.,WA


SILVER MEDICAL STUDIES BIBLIOGRAPHY

Prepared by A. B. Flick,MD

1. Addicks, L. et al.: Silver in Industry, Reinhold Pub. Corp., NY 401-450, 584-649 (1940). Extensive bibliography on silver for water purification.

2. Akiyama, H. and Okamoto, S., Prophylaxis of indwelling urethral catheter infection: clinical experience with a modified Foley catheter and drainage system, J. Urol., 121, 40, 1979.

3. Avakyan, Z.A., Comparative toxicity of heavy metals for certain microorganisms, Microbiology, 36, 366, 1967. 4. Baenziger, N.C., Description of the structure of three silver-containing drug complexes, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD,May 13-14, 1987.

5. Barranco, S.D. and Colmano, G., Electrical Inhibition of Staphlococcus aureus, Virginia Medical, 646, 1976. 6. Barranco, S.D., Spadaro, J.A., Berger, T.J., and Becker, R.O., In vitro effect of weak direct current on staphlococcus aureus, Clinical Orthopaedics, 100, 250, 1974.

7. Becker, R.O., Electrical treatment of osteomyelitis, Surgery of the Musculoskeletal System, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1983, 4, 10- 197.

8. Becker, R.O., The effect of electrically generated silver ions on human cells, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD,May 13-14, 1987.

9. Becker, R.O., Effect of anodally generated silver ions on fibrosarcoma cells, Electro- and Magnetobio., 11, 57, 1992.

10. Becker, R.O. and Esper, C., Electrostimulation and undetected malignant tumors, Clin. Orthop., 161, 336, 1981.

11. Becker, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A., Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with electrically generated silver ions, J. Bone Jt. Surgery., 60-A, 871, 1978.

12. Benvenisty, A.I., Tannenbaum, G., Ahlborn, T.N., Fox, C.L.,Modak, S., Sampath, L., Reemtsma, K. and Nowygrod, R., Control of prosthetic bacterial infections: evaluation of an easily incorporated, tightly bound, silver antibiotic PTFE graft, J. Surg. Res., 44,1,

1988.

13. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and mammalian cells, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 9, 357, 1976.

14. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Bierman, R., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Antifungal properties of electrically generated metallic ions, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 10, 856, 1976.

15. Block, Seymour, Ed.: Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, Chapter 18; Lea & Febiger & Co., Philadelphia, 3rd Ed (1983). Extensive bibliography.

16. Bolton, L., Foleno, B.,Means, B., and Petrucelli, S., Direct-current bactericidal effect on intact skin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 18, 137, 1980.

17. Bolton, M., The effects of various metals on the growth of certain bacteria, Am. Phys., ?, 174, ?.

18. Bragg, P.D. and Rainnie, D.J., The effect of silver ions on the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli, Can. J.Microbiol., 20, 883, 1974.

19. Buckley,W.R.: Localized Argyria, Arch. Dermatol. 88: 531-539, 1963.

20. Bult, A., Silver sulfanilamides and related compounds for dermatological application, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD,May 13-14, 1987.

21. Burke, J.F., and Bondoc, C.C., Combined burn therapy utilizing immediate skin allografts and 0.5% AgNO3, Arch. Surg., 97, 716, 1968.

22. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Mechanisms of antibacterial effect of biologic dressings, Ann. Surg., 177, 181, 1973.

23. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Effect of skin dressings and topical antibiotics on healing of partial thickness skin wounds in rats, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 136, 958, 1973.

24. Butts, A., The chemical properties of silver, Silver-Economics,Metallurgy, and Use, ed. Butts, A., Krieger, Huntington, NY 1975, 123.

25. Carr, H.S., Wlodkowski, T.J., Rosenkranz, H.S., Silver-sulfadiazine: in vitro antibacterial activity, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 4, 585, 1973.

26. Chu, C.S.,McManus, A.T., Okerberg, C.V.,Mason, A.D., and Pruitt, B.A.,Weak direct current accelerates split-thickness graft healingon tangentially excised second-degree burns, J. Burn Care Rehab., 12, 285, 1991.

27. Chu, C.S.,McManus, A.T.,Mason, A.D., Okerberg, C.V. and Pruitt, B.A., Multiple graft harvestings from deep partial-thickness scald wounds healed under the influence of weak direct current, J. Trauma, 30, 1044, 1990.

28. Chu, C.C., Tsai,W.C., Yao, J.Y., and Chiu, S.S., Newly made antibacterial braided nylon sutures. 1. In vitro qualitative and in vivo preliminary biocompatibility study, J. Biomed.Mater. Res., 21, 1281, 1987

29. Cieszynski, T., Influence of negative electricity on infected callus and osteitis, Acta Morphologica Acad. Sci. Hung., 15, 309, 1967.

30. Collinge, C.A., Goll, G., Seligson, D.and Easly, K.J., Pin tract infections: silver vs. uncoated pins. Orthopedics, 17, 445, 1994.

31. Colmano, G.,Medical Applications of monomolecular films of silver, gold and other metals, International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD,May 13-14, 1987.

32. Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Inhibition of staphlococcus aureus on a contaminated electrode in the femur of the rabbit by low electrical current and its relation to stress, Biophys. J., 15, 28a, 1975.

33. Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Staphlococcus aureus inhibition by low direct current on silver electrodes in the femur of rabbits. Fifty-third Annual meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, Harrisonburg, VA,May 6-9, 1975.

34. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., Lesch, T.E., and Barranco, S.D., Control of Staphlococcus aureus osteomyelitis by microampere activation of metal ions in monomolecular films on stainless steel pins, Fifty-Third Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science,

Harrisonburg, VA,May 6- 9, 35. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., and Barranco, S.D. Activation of antibacterial silver coatings on surgical implants by direct current: preliminary studies in rabbits, _., 41, 964, 1980.

36. Colmano, G. , Edwards, S.S., Fainter, L.K. and Barranco, S. D., Electronmicrographs of silver and stainless steel surgical implants coated with silver compounds to control S. Aureus by direct current activation, Twenty-eighth Annual ORS, New Orleans, LA, January 19-21, 1982.

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