|This is an article by Mark Metcalf
discussing Rosemary Jacobs and her claims that colloidal silver caused her
argyria and is the cause of argyria in general. It is very
informative. This article was written in 2001 and is in ISSUE 4,
VOLUME 3 of NEWSLETTER FOR SILVER PROTECTS. Mark's website is
Ty∑rant \ítirent\ n -s [ME
tyran, tirant, tirand, fr. OF tyran, tyrant, fr. L tyrannus, fr. Gk
tyrannos] 1a: an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or constitution;
often: a usurper of sovereignty b obs: a ruling personage (as a prince or
governor) c: a ruler who exercises absolute power oppressively or
brutally: DESPOT 2 a: a person in a position of control who exercises
unlawful or improper authority or lawful or proper authority in an
arbitrary or oppressive manner: one who by unfair or unreasonable demands
or rigorous exploitation imposes burdens and hardships on those under his
control - Websterís Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged,
In Support of Medical Murder
The Rosemary Jacobs/FDA Story
Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall
determine what is science? Nowhere.
Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall define
what is medicine? Nowhere.
Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall
determine who is fit to practice medicine? Nowhere.
Where in the Constitution does it say that the government shall
determine what is safe and effective? Nowhere.
Even if the government could accurately and completely determine the
outer boundaries of what is medicine, which any thinking individual knows
is an impossibility, the government still has no constitutional right to
ram its conclusions down the throats of the citizenry. If you want to hire
a witch doctor to cure your headaches, thatís your constitutional right.
But Rosemary Jacobs feels differently.
Who Is Rosemary Jacobs?
Rosemary Jacobs has become a familiar name and face to many Americans
due to her dramatic countenance and the promotional efforts of the Food
and Drug Administration, who put her on national prime time news. There
can be no doubt that in Jacobs, the FDA has found a powerful propaganda
tool. Adopting the role of a rueful sage, Jacobs is now widening her
original efforts to suppress the publicís access to colloidal silver by
attacking the validity of alternative health itself. The complete version
of her published account can be found on the Internet at http://homepages.togethernet/~rjstan/.
What follows is almost a point-by-point rebuttal of The Rosemary Jacobs
I hope that my wide-ranging review will prompt others to take a closer
look at this strange tale of contradictions.
"The falsification of history has done more to impede human development
than any one thing known to mankind."
-- Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The Rosemary Jacobs Story
Rosemary Jacobs begins with the statement, "For forty years I tried to
blend into the crowd, but when I discovered that the quacks were back, I
knew that I couldnít do that anymore. I had to stand up and shout, ĎLook
at me! Iím gray.í I had to warn the public."
She goes on to say that when she was eleven years old, her mother took
her to an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist on Long Island because she
always had a cold. The MD prescribed nose drops that contained silver with
instructions to take them intermittently as needed.
Here we find the first oddity. At the beginning, Jacobs makes reference
to quacks, but in the second paragraph we learn it was a icensed medical
doctor who prescribed her nose drops. The oddity is compounded by the fact
that the joint media campaign by Jacobs and the FDA was for the express
purpose of restricting over-the-counter access to colloidal silver. In
other words, it can have no effect, nor was it ever intended to have any
effect, on licensed doctors who prescribe silver remedies for their
patients; therefore, it will have no effect on the circumstances that led
to her argyria.
A picture then appears with Rosemary as a pretty young girl with her
mother and the family dog. The story continues by saying that one day,
some three years later, a nurse, who was also a pharmacist, stopped Jacobs
and asked why she was "that color," meaning slate-gray. Her answer was
that no one, including herself, had noticed before.
I know some readers have found it hard to believe that a
fourteen-year-old girl would not notice her complexion had become gray. As
one woman put it, "It sounds impossible to me that nobody, including
herself, would not have noticed her turning gray. Teenage girls do nothing
but stare at their face all day!" One would think that Mom and Dad might
also have noticed when their daughter lost her color without the help of a
nurse who is also a pharmacist. However, if the change in her face was
gradual enough, and mild enough, I suppose it could have happened.
But, according to the story, the change was not mild. "Suddenly
everyone noticed. I was slate-gray." This means that her parents, along
with her schoolteachers and everyone else, did not notice. Go to the
Rosemary Jacobs web site and take a good look at her color pictures. Now
try to imagine the scenario her story describes. I find it difficult to
One of the hallmarks of a professional writer is theyíll often work God
into the story. This device helps to underscore a particular value or
higher truth. It creates a kind of invulnerability to support a key
premise that cannot be questioned. In many cases this is accomplished with
a surrogate, such as a catholic priest, which accounts for the high
percentage of priests and nuns in Hollywood movies.
Continuing with the Rosemary Jacobs story, "This time (the) Sister
greeted me with ĎYouíre taking nose drops, arenít you?í I told her I was.
ĎStop,í she said. ĎThey have silver in them. Thatís why youíre gray.í"
Yes, the nurse who is also a pharmacist is also a nun. Interestingly, this
representative of God literally commands the reader to "Stop" using silver
In the next paragraph Jacobs sees a dermatologist who confirms the
diagnosis of the nurse/pharmacist/nun as argyria, a permanent,
irreversible skin discoloration caused by the ingestion of silver. "A
biopsy confirms the diagnosis by showing all the little specks of silver
in the skin." Despite the fact that she started off by saying "the quacks
are back," a reference tied to her own childhood doctor, Jacobs
inexplicably softens at this point in her story. "I never really wanted to
sue the doctor. He was a good person who made a tragic mistake. He read
the ads from drug companies instead of the medical literature."
Actually, the "drug companies" didnít want to market silver products
because they were not profitable enough. It was left to individual doctors
who had a keen appreciation of the efficacy of silver to create and market
their own products. One example would be Dr. Henry Crookes. A contemporary
example would be Dr. A. B. Flick, of Argentum Research.
Under the heading "Old Garbage," Jacobs continues, "All kinds of silver
medicinals, as well as many other dubious and noxious drugs, were used by
desperate physicians before the advent of antibiotics.Any student of
history can tell you how ineffective they were."
Who Wrote the Rosemary Jacobs Story?
In reading Rosemary Jacobsí
story, I was struck by a number of troubling inconsistencies. They
reminded me of a story I heard some years ago.
I know a man who is a professional writer. Iíve been to two dinner
parties at his home, which sits in an exclusive area overlooking a
major city. One of the guests informed me that the host wrote the
biographies that March of Dimes used in their fund-raisers. Later,
over dinner, I said to our host, "I canít believe it. That stuff is
made up? How do you do it?" He said, "Well, they give me a stack of
pictures (of crippled children) to look through and then I just pick
one I like and write a story around it. Theyíre one of my best
clients and their fund-raisers are always very successful."
Did the FDA hire a
professional PR writer to create a story that promotes a specific
FDA agenda and wrap it around Rosemary Jacobs? Jacobs says she is
not a professional writer and thatís easy to believe when reading
the bulk of her web page. However, I find her writing greatly
improved when reading the skillfully crafted work of the The
Rosemary Jacobs Story. Read my review of The Rosemary Jacobs Story
for a long list of inconsistencies.
These sentences rely heavily on the ubiquitous propaganda of modern
medicine as the pinnacle of unbiased science and reason. However, itís a
statistical fact that the mortality rate drops whenever modern hospitals
go on strike. This means that hospitals routinely kill more people than
they save. Antibiotics play a major role in that mortality.
The next sentence in the Jacobs story introduces a strange acronym.
"Colloidal silver (CSP) is not a new alternative remedy." An acronym
should use the same letters as the words from which it derives. This
acronym is based on a term invented by the FDA called "colloidal silver
preparations." Itís a meaningless phrase designed to put all silver
medicinals in one bag. Notice that the author was forced to use real words
in the sentence so that the reader can get a handle on just what a CSP is
supposed to be.
One has to wonder why Rosemary Jacobs would add "CSP" after sheís
already used the words "colloidal silver." At the very least, it implies
that the FDA made alterations in the Jacobs story before it was released
to the press. CSP happens to be a crucial element for furthering the FDA
agenda of restricting the publicís access to colloidal silver.Why? Because
colloidal silver is nontoxic. Therefore, the FDA needs a way to erase the
medical distinctions between colloidal silver and other highly
concentrated chemical compounds of silver that can be toxic if ingested.
Without this device, colloidal silver cannot be attacked on the grounds of
being dangerous. Interestingly, the very next sentence does exactly that.
"It is an old, discarded tradition, one that homeopaths and other
people calling themselves Ďalternative healthcare practitionersí have
pulled out of the garbage pail of useless and dangerous drugs and
therapies, things mainstream medicine threw away decades ago."
I understand why the FDA doesnít like homeopaths - because the
medicines they use are absolutely nontoxic and canít be controlled by the
FDA. But why is Rosemary Jacobs angry at homeopaths and alternative
healthcare providers? She wasnít even mad at the licensed MD who gave her
argyria. Nor is there any evidence that Jacobs has ever seen a homeopath
or alternative health physician. Even if argyria is possible from taking
colloidal silver -which has never been proven - homeopathic medicines are
so extremely dilute that even the cosmetic condition of argyria would not
be possible under any circumstances, period.
No explanation is given for Jacobsís attack on homeopaths and
alternative health-care practitioners whom she accuses of taking their
remedies from a "garbage pail of useless and dangerous drugs."
Jacobs also makes the statement that mainstream medicine threw away
useless and dangerous drugs and therapies decades ago. The United States
Office of Technology Assessment does not agree, reporting, "Only 10 to 20
percent of all medical procedures currently used in allopathic medical
practice have been shown to be efficacious by controlled trial." Jacobs
must have also missed the Journal of the American Medical Associationís
report that more than 100,000 Americans were killed in 1994 by FDAapproved
drugs, and another 2,200,000 were seriously injured. The research was
conservative in that it focused only on correctly prescribed drugs and
only on people who died in hospitals. In other words, nearly one percent
of the entire nation was either killed or seriously injured in one year
from FDA-approved drugs. Even though similar statistics turn up in studies
year after year, no one from the FDA ever goes to jail. It appears that
the FDA policy-makers and the drug company leaders - who often are the
same people by way of a busily revolving door - are above the law because
they are the law.
The Dangers of Antibiotics
Children probably suffer the
most from antibiotics.. These drugs are known to cause changes in the
diameter of the eye in some children and have created an epidemic of
earaches, asthma and other autoimmune dysfunction that, in conjunction
with other toxic medications such as asthma inhalers, have killed many
children. The extreme overuse of antibiotics has also turned modern
hospitals into prolific breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant
strains of bacteria.
All too often, patients who
merely walked into a hospital for routine tests have literally died
after becoming accidentally infected with multi-drug resistant
bacteria. Itís a slow, horrible death that colloidal silver can easily
Jacobs goes on to quote from several articles that were very critical
of intranasal silver medications because some cases of argyria had
resulted. Jacobs then says, "In searching that literature for thirty years
I have never found any evidence that silver in a personís body benefits
anyone other than the quack who sold it." Jacobs must have skipped over
"Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with Electrically Generated Silver
Ions" - R.O. Becker, MD, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery,
American volume, October 1978. Vol. 60-A, No. 7. I quoted from this
article extensively in my article, "Banishing Disease With Three 9-Volt
Batteries, Pt. 2." (The reader will find 183 studies that Jacobs missed
listed at the end of this article. Itís unlikely that t hese studies
represent a complete list of all silver medical studies.)
Continuing, "If, in fact, it did do all the wonderful things that the
promoters claim, Queen Victoria and the Rockefellers would still be alive
and they would be gray like me." Interestingly enough, Queen Victoria used
a homeopath as her personal physician, as do many Europeans, and the queen
did indeed live to a ripe old age without turning gray. As for the
Rockefellers, John D. Rockefeller lived in excellent health to the age of
95 as did his son John D. Jr., who died at age 86. Both attributed their
good health to a frugal diet of natural food, the advice of a homeopathic
doctor only, and the complete avoidance of synthetic drugs.
As the story continues, Jacobs delivers lines that are tailor made for
the FDAís agenda to label colloidal silver a dangerous and unapproved
drug. "In 1995 I discovered that CSP, one of the drugs that causes
argyria, was again being aggressively promoted." Here we see the CSP
acronym again. "CSP" is supposed to include colloidal silver.We also see
the statement that this pure mineral element in water is a "drug," and
that it causes argyria. (The date, 1995, is personally interesting in that
it coincides with my first published article on colloidal silver in a
national magazine. She appears to be quoting from that article in the next
sentence except for the word "cure" which I did not use.) Jacobs continues
with, "They also claimed that it was a pre-1938 OTC (over-the-counter
drug) that cures 650 specific conditions and diseases such as cancer,
AIDS, acne, and lupus."
Colloidal silver was indeed a pre-1938 OTC remedy.Medical books from
the period reveal colloidal silver to be in common use as far back as
1850. The 650 conditions were the results of studies conducted by Dr.
Harry Margraf, which was reported on in the March, 1978 issue of
Science Digest. Dr.Margraf ís studies showed that silver remedies were
effective for more than 650 different disease conditions.While AIDS was
not on that list in 1978, I have heard anecdotal evidence that colloidal
silver is very effective for people with full-blown AIDS. In addition, a
friend, Joan Shallack,MD, PhD, reported to me that colloidal silver was
helpful for her lupus.While this may be anecdotal, I suspect Dr. Shallack
knew what she was talking about. Dr. Bjorn Nordstrom, at Swedenís National
Institutes of Health (Karolinska Institute), has used silver in his cancer
cure treatments, which he said brought rapid remission in patients given
up by other doctors. I also found studies in which very severe and
advanced forms of cancer were cured by a prominent Chicago physician with
colloidal gold. Those studies are circa 1935 and are cited in my book.
The Jacobs story then accuses health food stores of "deliberately lying
to sell their product." Jacobs adds, "The response I got from the owner of
a store that sells the stuff was pretty typical. I told him that my skin
is gray from the ingestion of silver adding that silver in my body has
never benefited me."Earlier in the story Jacobs said she used a silver
nasal spray for three years for her colds.Why would she go through the
trouble of regularly using a medication for three years that never worked?
Jacobs also says she canít remember whether the nasal spray was
colloidal silver, silver nitrate, or some other chemical compound of
silver. Her lapse of memory during those three years works out very neatly
for the FDA agenda and their Orwellian "CSP," which erases the truth about
colloidal silver and the many distinctions that exist among a large
variety of silver medicinals.
Researching Rosemary Jacobsí medical history I found more anomalies.
The New England Journal of Medicine, May 20, 1999, Vol. 340, No. 20,
reports the following on Rosemary Jacobsí case, "The facial pigmentation
was diffuse until the age of 36, but it became patchy after dermabrasion."
Interestingly, I have seen two different looking pictures of Jacobs, one
where she looks bluish with some patchiness and another where she looks
like sheís been painted slate-gray. In the case of the latter, where is
the patchiness caused some twenty years ago by the dermabrasion? Is it
possible that her complexion later became more evenly gray?
Returning to her story we find, "I had breast cancer at the age of 42."
It turns out that Jacobs went the orthodox route for her cancer in 1984,
six years after the dermabrasion.What is a possible cosmetic side effect
of radiation and chemotherapy? Turning slate-gray. It happened to a
neighbor of mine a few years ago. She looked a lot like Rosemary Jacobs,
only she didnít wear red lipstick to heighten the effect. In the case of
Jacobs, how can anyone know whether theyíre seeing argyria, or cosmetic
side effects of her cancer treatment, or some combined effect?
Returning to Jacobsí story, under the heading "Old Quacks," she begins
the character assassination of physicians and chemists from the past who
used silver remedies. She refers to Dr. Henry Crookes without a title, as
if heís just some guy. "Henry Crookes was a pioneer CSP manufacturer in
England at the turn of the century." This becomes a trend in her
"research" of the "old quacks." Then she delivers a very interesting quote
from the 1919 Journal of the American Medical Associationís Council on
Pharmacy and Chemistry, which ruled that collosol argentum, along with
several other Crookesí Laboratory products, were "inadmissible to New and
Nonofficial Remedies," because, "In the few cases in which the therapeutic
claims for these preparations were examined, the claims were found to be
so improbable or exaggerated as to have necessitated the rejection of
In the few cases in which the therapeutic claims for these preparations
were examined, the claims were found to be so improbableÖ It sounds as
if they didnít bother to try the products and some were not even looked
at. I assume this is evidence of the campaign to eliminate silver
medicinals from the United States in the early twentieth century.
Next, we have quotes from someone by the name of A. Legge Roe, whom I
assume is also a medical doctor minus his title, courtesy of Rosemary
Jacobsí research. "A. Legge Roe did write about the great success he had
treating gonorrheal opthamalia with collosol argentum. (One of the
medicines the 1919 Journal of the American Medical Associationís Council
on Pharmacy and Chemistry didnít want to try in the previous paragraph. -
author) He also stated, ĎIt is the most useful preparation that has been
placed in our hands since the introduction of cocaine.í"
The reference to cocaine is apparently supposed to discredit Dr. Roe
and to make him look like a medical barbarian. Personally it does not
surprise me that a powerful drug like cocaine, or heroin, as in morphine,
might have some application in the field of medicine.
Returning to the Jacobs story, we now find a chemist without a degree.
"In 1939 Hartman, a chemist not a medical doctor, included a chapter on
colloids in medicine in his chemistry book. (I assume Jacobs made special
mention of the fact that Hartman was not a medical doctor because he
probably had a doctorate in chemistry, and, therefore, the title, Dr.
Hartman, which was later deleted from her story.) On p. 536 he said that
CSP is safe enough to be put into the eyes and nose." Since "CSP" didnít
exist in 1939, I suspect that is not what he said. However, thanks to
Jacobsí switching of meaningful words (colloidal silver, silver nitrate,
whatever he actually wrote) with a non-meaningful acronym (CSP, or all
silver remedies), the entire sentence is now devoid of any useful
information. Continuing, "He also stated on the same page that,
ĎIntramuscular injections of colloidally suspended lead are of value in
arresting certain cancerous growths.í"
Personally, Iíd take the lead any day before submitting to the
overwhelming toxicity of radiation, especially if Dr. Hartman was getting
good results. Lead is almost at the bottom of the toxic substances list,
and cancer is a serious, life-threatening disease. Cancer is in a very
different class of medical conditions from say, a toothache. Mercury is at
the number two spot of toxic substances, right underneath plutonium. Today
we are told there is no problem in putting mercury in our mouths and in
our childrenís mouths by way of dental fillings. If, however, your filling
falls out and you throw it in a field, you can be arrested, just the same
as if you were dumping plutonium, because mercury is that toxic.
Please note we do not agree with Mr.
Metcalf regarding the toxicity of lead but we are leaving his article in
its entirety rather that edit content. Lead is a very dangerous
substance indeed and is responsible for many deaths. However the
main thrust of his article is regarding argyria.
Under the heading "Misquoted Reputable Authors," Jacobs says, "Another
article about silver that colloidal silver promoters often referred to was
one by Jim Powell which appeared in the March 1978 edition of the now
defunct popular magazine Science Digest. They always referred to it
as ĎOur Mightiest Germ Fighter.í When I tracked down the magazine, I
discovered that the article didnít mention colloidal silver and that the
full title was, ĎPerhaps it soon will be recognized as OUR MIGHTIEST GERM
FIGHTER.í Why do you think promoters never mention the first half of the
title? Could it be because they know that the promise never materialized
and they donít want readers to find out?"
Thereís a good reason why they donít mention it. In fact, there are
three good reasons. 1. The Xerox made from the microfilm at the library is
very poor quality and the smaller beginning subtitle in the magazine
appears over a large graphic of a silver nugget. It just looks like a big
black square that is literally unreadable. Most people finding it at the
library would not even know the subtitle was there. 2. There are actually
two different subtitles for the article in the magazine. In the table of
contents the subtitle and title read, "Silver: Emerging As Our Mightiest
Germ Fighter." So which subtitle are people supposed to use? 3. Itís
completely inconsequential. Obviously, Jacobs, or whoever wrote this, is
trying to smear the alternative health field. But, since when does
everyone scrupulously quote subtitles?
The truth about the Science Digest article is that it was very
enthusiastic about the research of Dr. Harry Margraf, who demonstrated
onclusively the inherent medical properties of silver in eliminating over
650 different disease conditions, including multi-drug resistant bacteria,
which are presently responsible for tens of thousands of deaths in
hospitals every year. The thrust of the article was that itís about time
the public became aware that "silver is the best all around germ-fighter
we have." The article also pointed out that this is why the space shuttle
uses silver in its water purification system.
Under the heading "1990ís Snake Oil," Jacobs continues with an attack
on health food stores. "Some drinking water contains silver. At what
concentration of silver does drinking water turn into CSP? Iíve never been
able to get a salesperson to tell me this." This is hardly surprising.
since "CSP" is a meaningless term. Allow me to substitute my own madeup
word and ask the question again. At what concentration of silver does
drinking water turn into Bingbong? Iíve never been able to get a
salesperson to tell me this.
The Rosemary Jacobs story finally ends on the following ominous note,
"I believe this is ample proof that individuals and doctors are not
capable of determining whether or not a drug is safe and effective." Do
you see the intent? You are not capable of determining what is safe and
effective in the same way that a dog cannot be taught how to write its
name with a ballpoint pen. Itís just not possible. Even doctors will no
longer be allowed to make their own determinations of what is safe and
effective. Like you, they are merely humans and thatís no longer good
enough. Why, they could develop the mistaken idea that drugs are toxic, or
that death is not helpful for some patients!
In reality, the Rosemary Jacobs story is a carefully constructed tower,
where every brick is laid on behalf of its owner, architect and soon-to-be
resident. The stage is being set for a new high priest to come to town.
Someone who will own the human body the way cattle ranchers own cattle.
The anointed oneís initials can be commonly found, carved into the backs
of Americans in every morgue across the land. F.D.A.
My sister was treated with mega doses of antibiotics when flesh-eating
bacteria got loose in the hospital. All her teeth had to be pulled because
of a reaction to the antibiotics. So I checked Mother Earth News and found
your book. The colloidal silver healed my sister. Made a new person out of
her. She healed up in half the time.
My mother, who has been treated for a stroke with herbal, homeopathy,
reflexology and hydrotherapy also improved. Eyes brightened, talking and
laughing, her walking distance doubled in three weeks.
My stomach acid problem has greatly improved. The colloidal silver
allows me to drink orange juice.With the first dose I felt a spot in my
stomach react immediately. Plus, an old eye injury healed up the first
I recently applied for a job at a hospital - I am a Registered
Reflexologist and Naprapath. I was hired as a Clinical Support assistant.
However, I learned I was expected to have 24 vaccinations. I declined and
I did not get the job.
While in another state, I cut my finger and got four stitches. I
declined the Tetanus -Diphtheria because of past allergic reactions. The
hospital called my personal physician and had my records marked "failed to
That was when I learned my physician had entered my records in a
statewide computer system without my permission. I fired my physician! Now
the hospital has threatened they will cause "trouble" for me.
We are enjoying your book. Colloidal silver seems miraculous and I
wonder why Iíve not heard of it sooner.
SILVER MEDICAL STUDIES BIBLIOGRAPHY
by A. B. Flick,MD
1. Addicks, L. et al.: Silver in Industry, Reinhold Pub. Corp., NY
401-450, 584-649 (1940). Extensive bibliography on silver for water
2. Akiyama, H. and Okamoto, S., Prophylaxis of indwelling urethral
catheter infection: clinical experience with a modified Foley catheter and
drainage system, J. Urol., 121, 40, 1979.
3. Avakyan, Z.A., Comparative toxicity of heavy metals for certain
microorganisms, Microbiology, 36, 366, 1967. 4. Baenziger, N.C.,
Description of the structure of three silver-containing drug complexes,
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MD,May 13-14, 1987.
5. Barranco, S.D. and Colmano, G., Electrical Inhibition of
Staphlococcus aureus, Virginia Medical, 646, 1976. 6. Barranco, S.D.,
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direct current on staphlococcus aureus, Clinical Orthopaedics, 100, 250,
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Musculoskeletal System, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1983, 4, 10- 197.
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human cells, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in
Medicine, Bethesda, MD,May 13-14, 1987.
9. Becker, R.O., Effect of anodally generated silver ions on
fibrosarcoma cells, Electro- and Magnetobio., 11, 57, 1992.
10. Becker, R.O. and Esper, C., Electrostimulation and undetected
malignant tumors, Clin. Orthop., 161, 336, 1981.
11. Becker, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A., Treatment of Orthopedic Infections
with electrically generated silver ions, J. Bone Jt. Surgery., 60-A, 871,
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S., Sampath, L., Reemtsma, K. and Nowygrod, R., Control of prosthetic
bacterial infections: evaluation of an easily incorporated, tightly bound,
silver antibiotic PTFE graft, J. Surg. Res., 44,1,
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Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and
mammalian cells, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 9, 357, 1976.
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R.O., Antifungal properties of electrically generated metallic ions,
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 10, 856, 1976.
15. Block, Seymour, Ed.: Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation,
Chapter 18; Lea & Febiger & Co., Philadelphia, 3rd Ed (1983). Extensive
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Direct-current bactericidal effect on intact skin, Antimicrob. Agents
Chemother., 18, 137, 1980.
17. Bolton, M., The effects of various metals on the growth of certain
bacteria, Am. Phys., ?, 174, ?.
18. Bragg, P.D. and Rainnie, D.J., The effect of silver ions on the
respiratory chain of Escherichia coli, Can. J.Microbiol., 20, 883, 1974.
19. Buckley,W.R.: Localized Argyria, Arch. Dermatol. 88: 531-539, 1963.
20. Bult, A., Silver sulfanilamides and related compounds for
dermatological application, First International Conference on Gold and
Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD,May 13-14, 1987.
21. Burke, J.F., and Bondoc, C.C., Combined burn therapy utilizing
immediate skin allografts and 0.5% AgNO3, Arch. Surg., 97, 716, 1968.
22. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Mechanisms of antibacterial effect
of biologic dressings, Ann. Surg., 177, 181, 1973.
23. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Effect of skin dressings and topical
antibiotics on healing of partial thickness skin wounds in rats, Surg.
Gynecol. Obstet., 136, 958, 1973.
24. Butts, A., The chemical properties of silver, Silver-Economics,Metallurgy,
and Use, ed. Butts, A., Krieger, Huntington, NY 1975, 123.
25. Carr, H.S., Wlodkowski, T.J., Rosenkranz, H.S.,
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