|"A Closer Look At Colloidal Silver By
Peter A. Lindemann"
Comments in red are by SilverGen.
During the last two years, a number of books and articles have appeared in public on the
subject of colloidal silver. Some of these include: the Bio-Tech News Special Report,
"Hi-Yo Silver"; Colloidal Silver, The Natural Antibiotic Alternative, by Zane
Baranowski; Colloidal Silver, by Tonita d'Raye; and "Banishing Disease with Three
Nine Volt Batteries", parts I & II, by Mark Metcalf. Literally hundreds of other
newsletters and small publications have repeated the information in these articles without
checking the content for accuracy.
The appearance of these materials two years ago was the first wave of public education
concerning colloidal silver. Today, most Health Food Stores carry and sell several brands
of colloidal silver, scores of MLM companies have colloidal silver products in their
lines, and prices are starting to drop. While it is still possible to spend as much as
$10/oz. for colloidal silver in Health Food Stores, prices can be as low as $5/oz. Some
mail order catalogs sell it for as little as $2.50/oz., and I have seen small classified
ads selling it for under $1/oz. The trend is definitely toward a lower price.
One of the phenomena driving the price down is the appearance of the devices that allow
people to make their own colloidal silver. At this time, (Spring 1997) the cottage
industry of colloidal silver generators is starting to penetrate the larger market. This
is starting to cause alarm in high places. One major commercial manufacturer of colloidal
silver has recently issued a warning statement to its customers, alerting them to the
dangers of the "inferior quality" of colloidal silver made by these devices. CNN
and other major media have also tried to scare the public away from colloidal silver by
showing a blue-skinned person who "suffers" from Argyria, a cosmetic condition
caused by the build-up of silver compounds under the skin. Even JAMA (The Journal of the
American Medical Association) has run articles warning of Argyria and the toxicities
associated with Acolloidal silver proteins@. On January 16, 1997, new labeling guidelines
concerning colloidal silver went into effect, issued by the FDA. Other FDA rulings on
"safety and effectiveness" are still pending. With all of these developments, it
doesn't take a rocket scientist to see that the whole situation around colloidal silver is
The purpose of this article is to raise the level of public knowledge to a higher degree
of accuracy. Knowledge is power, and the public needs to know the truth about colloidal
The first thing people need to know is that there are at least FOUR different products on
the market being called COLLOIDAL SILVER.
The first type of product is the classic, original kind, usually called
"electro-colloidal silver." This product is made either by the
"electro-arc" method in deionized water, or by the "low voltage
electrolysis" method in distilled water. This product is usually found in
concentrations between 3-5 ppm (parts per million), but sometimes as high as 100 ppm.
Properly made, this product consists of microscopic particles of pure, elemental silver
suspended in water, with no other elements present. Each particle of silver carries a
POSITIVE electrical charge. Colloidal silver made this way appears either
transparent-clear or transparent-light yellow.
The second is called "mild silver protein." This product chemically binds
microscopic particles of silver to a protein molecule. It is usually found in
concentrations between 20-40 ppm. Its appearance may be transparent-clear or amber.
The third are "silver salts." These products can be made either chemically or
electro-chemically and usually create a form of silver that DISSOLVES in the water.
Concentrations range between 50-500 ppm. Its appearance is transparent-clear. The silver
particles do carry a POSITIVE electrical charge, but almost invariably, these products
contain other elements or compounds other than silver.
The fourth is sometimes referred to as "powdered silver." This product was
developed by the Russians and is made when a pure silver wire is rapidly disintegrated by
an high voltage electrical discharge, similar to an old photographic flash bulb. The
microscopic silver dust is collected and either dissolved in water or added to salves and
creams for topical use. Concentrations range from 100-500 ppm.
All of these products work, to one degree or another, as a broad spectrum germicide
because they all contain microscopic particles of SILVER. That said, it is important to
understand a number of things: 1) all of these products are not "colloidal
suspensions" of silver, 2) these products DO NOT all behave the same in the body or
in laboratory tests, 3) effectiveness and dosage varies from product to product, 4)
quality varies from product to product and from batch to batch with the same product, and
5) they are NOT all uniformly safe and non-toxic. There are no industry standards that
manufacturers voluntarily follow to assure quality control and there is no governmental
regulation of the industry.
On the other hand, there are millions and millions of satisfied colloidal silver users who
would like to have continued, free access to the product, and a growing number of
manufacturers entering the market with a wide variety of new products.
The critical factors that make a "good" colloidal silver product are particle
size, purity, concentration, and cost. The only way to authoritatively determine the first
three is by laboratory analysis. The best way to determine particle size is by electron
microscope photograph. The best way to determine purity is by mass spectroscopy or by
x-ray defraction analysis. The best way to determine concentration is by chemical analysis
of total dissolved solids. The cost of the product should be calculated in reference to
the total quantity of silver present, such as: $5.00/oz of 100 ppm is equal to 254/oz of 5
ppm (the first has 20 times more silver by volume and costs 20 times more by volume.)
Making Your Own
The simplest way to control these factors is to make the colloidal silver for yourself. By
doing this, you will not know exactly what is there unless you do laboratory testing, but
you will have a pretty good idea. Without laboratory testing of commercial products, you
don't know much more, because the quality control batch to batch is loose with most
brands. Also, by making it yourself, you will end up with real "colloidal"
silver, which is the product referred to in most of the literature.
If you are already making your own colloidal silver, please pay special attention to this
section because much of the information you now have may be incorrect.
The simplest way to make real colloidal silver at home is by the "low voltage
electrolysis" method. A few batteries may be connected to some silver electrodes and
placed in a glass of water. This process will cause small particles of silver to be
sintered off the electrodes and enter the water. This deceptively simple method is very
easy to do WRONG, and most people who are making colloidal silver at home are making an
It's In The Water
When you do this yourself, it is very important to control the purity of the water,
because the purity of the water is one of the factors that controls how small the
particles of silver will be. Only high quality DISTILLED water should be used. You cannot
use purified or filtered water because it still has too many dissolved minerals in it. You
cannot use deionized water because it doesn't conduct electricity well enough to start the
reaction. Distilled water is just perfect to start the reaction slowly and let it proceed
Another variable that influences particle size is the water temperature. The warmer the
water, the faster the reaction will take place, and the smaller the particles will be.
Partially true. It has been shown
that hot water DOES speed up the process but produces LARGER particles. Use room temperature water when making CS.
Please Pass The Salt
Regardless of what anyone has said to the contrary, silver chloride will ALWAYS form if
any amount of salt is present. Never add anything to the water that will make the water
conduct electricity better. Never add salt, sea salt, or Celtic sea salt to the distilled
water because the salt puts chloride ions in the water that react with the silver to form
silver chloride. Another serious problem arises when making colloidal silver with salt in
the water. The presence of salt increases the electrical conductivity of the water and
this dramatically speeds up the reaction. As the reaction speeds up under these
circumstances, it produces larger particles. The product produced is invariably
cloudy-white in appearance. Actual electron microscope photographs of this material show
silver particles in the range of .05 to .15 microns. These particles are TOO LARGE to form
a colloidal suspension, and the proof is that the material will settle to the bottom of
the container in a very short period of time. Therefore, this home brewed "colloidal
silver" product may be dangerous to consume internally for TWO reasons: the presence
of silver chloride and the production of large particles.
The Best Is Yet To Come
The very best voltage for the reaction is 30 volts, because the electrodes run the
cleanest at this voltage. If you have a small power supply, set it for 30 volts. If you
are running on batteries, it is best to start at 36 volts (three 12 volt batteries or four
9 volt batteries) and let the batteries drain down from there. Holding the silver
electrodes at a uniform distance away from each other yields a better product.
Not true regarding using a fixed
voltage. Voltage only allows the current to flow. It is the current that
determines CS quality. Current must be regulated by varying the voltage as the
silver is deposited in the water.
When 30 volts is applied across silver electrodes held uniformly apart in distilled water,
a totally different event happens. First, the reaction proceeds very slowly. Often, for
the first 15 minutes nothing seems to be happening. Then finally, a faint yellow mist will
begin to form. Within a few minutes, the reaction will speed up, but the particles
produced will be a golden-yellow as viewed with a flashlight. Using this method, 8 ounces
of distilled water at room temperature can be made into a 3-5 ppm colloidal silver
preparation in 20-25 minutes. Made this way, colloidal silver can cost under 104/oz to
make. Electron microscope photographs of this product show a silver particle size in the
range .001 to .004 microns. During manufacturing, the particle cloud is a golden-yellow.
These particles will hang in the water at the level they are produced, and for the most
part, will not fall to the bottom of the glass. This is what a "colloidal"
preparation of silver looks like. After the particles disperse, the water will look clear
again, but may turn a light yellow if the concentration is high enough and after the
particles have become evenly dispersed.
"The Yellow Color"
There has been a fair amount of controversy in the public literature concerning the
appearance of the "yellow" color. A lot of well meaning people have told me that
"yellow is bad", "silver isn't yellow", "yellow is sulfur
contamination", "yellow is iron contamination", and lots of other things. I
finally found what I believe to be the answer to this question in a book titled Practical
Colloid Chemistry, published in London in 1926. In the section on the "Colours of
Colloidal Metals", sub-section on the "Polychromism of silver solutions" on
page 69, I found the following statements: "The continuous change in colour from
yellow to blue corresponds to a change in the absorption maximum of the shorter to longer
wave-lengths with a decreasing degree of dispersion. This is a general phenomenon in
colloid chemistry illustrating the relation between colour and degree of dispersion.
"This section goes on to describe the colors that show up in a wide variety of
colloidal metal solutions. Interestingly, they ALL have a yellow phase. For true
"electro-colloidal" silver, the particle size range that can appear yellow is
.01 to .001 microns (10 to 100 angstroms) because that is the size of silver particle that
best absorbs the indigo light, leaving only its inverse color, yellow, to be observed. The
final transparent-yellow appearance only shows up after the particles have become evenly
If CS is properly made, it will be
crystal clear because the particles will be too small to reflect light.
The Brown Glass Bottle
Once you have gone to the trouble of making colloidal silver particles as small as .001
microns, it is important to protect them. The particles stay away from each other in
suspension because they each have a positive electrical charge (+) and these "like
charges" repel each other. Anything that can strip this charge off the particles will
degrade the quality of the colloidal silver by a process called re-coagulation, where the
particles clump together again to form larger aggregates. Ultraviolet light from the sun
and many plastics can cause this process to occur. Therefore, colloidal silver is best
stored in dark, glass containers. The two kinds of glass container that are suitable for
this are the dark amber and the cobalt blue.
If properly made, CS is NOT light
sensitive and can be stored in clear glass or HDPE containers.
The Same Difference
The biggest "secret" about the manufacture of high quality colloidal silver is
that it is nearly impossible to standardize the product. Silver is apparently reactive to
a number of natural forces that have yet to be identified. Even when the voltage, the
water, and the water temperature are identical, different batches will proceed at
different rates on different days. The speed of the reaction can vary by over 100%
depending on the day. On "normal" days, the reaction is proceeding well by 15
minutes, with a visible cloud of particles. On "slow days" it may take 30
minutes before any visible production of yellow particles begins. Because of this
variation, it is always wise to observe the reaction with a B flashlight so you can see
how quickly the reaction is happening. Once the yellow cloud starts forming, time the
batch for 5 more minutes. This is the best way to standardize your home brewed colloidal
Not true. CS made using constant
current compensates for all parameters and the end product is always the same and the
process is highly repeatable.
Colloidal or Ionic?
Another big controversy surrounds the question of whether this method produces
"colloidal" silver or "ionic" silver. Most people have been told that
colloidal silver is "good" and ionic silver is "bad." Once again, the
truth might be unpopular. The word "colloidal" refers to a condition where, in
this case, a solid particle is SUSPENDED in a liquid (silver in water). The solid
particles are too large to be considered DISSOLVED, but are too small to be filtered out.
This colloidal condition is most easily detected by what is called the "Tyndall
effect", where a narrow beam of light is shined through the liquid to produce a cone
shaped dispersion of the light. The particles so illuminated also exhibit a random,
zig-zag activity called "Brownian motion" when observed under a microscope. When
something is completely dissolved, both the Brownian and Tyndall effects disappear.
The word "ionic" refers to a condition where a particle has an electric charge.
In the case of "electro-colloidal" silver, this electric charge is ALWAYS
positive. Silver will not form a negatively charged ion. So, the truth is that
electro-colloidal silver is BOTH colloidal and ionic. It is considered colloidal because
of the particle SIZE and it is considered ionic because of the particle CHARGE. In fact,
most of the biological studies suggest it is colloidal silver's ionic characteristics that
make it such a good germicide. It is also interesting to note that the old chemistry books
make no distinction between the colloidal and ionic states of the electro-colloidal
Purity of Silver
The quality of your finished product depends entirely on the purity of the water you start
with and the purity of the silver you start with. Most of the current literature suggests
that only 99.99999% pure silver can be used. Most home brew systems use 99.9% pure silver.
So, what is the difference? To find out, I contacted Academy Metals, a company in
Albuquerque, New Mexico, that produces commercial silver. The total allowable impurities
in 99.9% (.9999 fine) silver is 1000 ppm or 1 part in 1000. These impurities and their
maximums are 1) Copper, 800 ppm, 2) Lead, 250 ppm, 3) Iron, 200 ppm, and 4) Bismuth, 10
ppm. This product is readily available in wire form and costs about $3.00 above the market
(spot) price of silver. When this product is used to make electro-colloidal silver at a
concentration of 5 ppm, the total impurities from the silver drop to 4 ppb (parts per
billion) copper, 1.25 ppb lead, 1 ppb iron, .05 ppb bismuth. With all allowable impurities
at these low levels, there is a reasonable argument for not being concerned. Still,
sometimes small things make a big difference. 99.99% silver (.99999 fine) has total
allowable impurities of 100 ppm of the same metals in the same ratios, and costs (in wire
form) between $50-$90 above the spot price of silver. 99.9999% silver (.999999 fine) has
total allowable impurities of 10 ppm, and in wire form costs about $250 above the spot
price. 99.99999% silver, in wire form, costs more than gold and is very difficult to find
In one sample of 10 ppm colloidal silver we sent out for total analysis (made with 99.9%
silver electrodes), the primary impurities found were: 1) Sodium, 470 ppb, 2) Calcium, 260
ppb, 3) Manganese, 70 ppb, 4) Potassium, 50 ppb, and 5) Magnesium, 24 ppb. Since none of
these impurities could have come from the silver, it suggests that the purity of the water
should be of greater concern to the person making their own colloidal silver, than
spending extra money on purer silver.
The concentration of silver in the water is usually measured in parts per million, or ppm.
While this is the standard convention, ppm is a "ratio" and not an indicator of
quantity. When a laboratory tests colloidal silver for concentration, they report the
findings in milligrams per liter (mg/L). Milligrams per liter is an actual measurement of
weight per volume, and therefore is a real quantity measurement. In the metric system, one
liter of water weighs 1000 grams, and one milligram is one thousandth (1/1000) of a gram,
so 1 mg/L is the same as 1 ppm, as long as we are talking about water. Silver weighs a
little more than water, but the equivalence is very close, and the terms are often used
interchangeably. With this in mind, we can calculate that one teaspoon of 5 ppm colloidal
silver has about 25 mcg (micrograms) of silver in it.
In 1940, R. A. Kehoe reported that under normal circumstances, the average daily intake of
fruits and vegetables would provide between 50-100 mcg of silver as a trace element. Since
that time, the commercial farm soils of this country have become extremely deficient in
trace minerals. Although I do not have authoritative figures for silver, according to the
Earth Summit Report, issued in 1992, the levels of soil based minerals in North America
have dropped over 85% in the last 100 years. Assuming that our ancestor's diet used to
contain trace silver, and that our diet probably has greatly reduced levels, there is a
reasonable argument for supplementing with colloidal silver. Two teaspoons of 5 ppm
colloidal silver provides about 50 mcg of silver and could be considered a
"nutritional" amount, if taken on a daily basis. Any amount above four teaspoons
a day or 100 mcg should be considered a "therapeutic" amount. That said, it
should not be assumed that electro-colloidal silver is equivalent to or has the same
metabolic effect as receiving trace silver from dietary plant sources. But since there are
very few plant sources of trace silver available today, colloidal silver is probably the
best substitute. If you want to experiment with taking colloidal silver for an extended
period of time, stay within the amounts considered to be nutritional. If you want to
experiment with larger doses, do so with caution, and only for a day or two at a time.
Safety and Toxicity
Silver can act as a heavy metal poison in the body. It can also act as a trace mineral
nutrient. The difference is in the particle size, NOT the concentration. Colloidal silver
with a particle size of .001 microns has particles 100 times smaller than a preparation of
silver with a particle size of .1 microns. The smaller the particle, the less likely it
will behave as a toxin. Typically, the worst toxic reaction from metallic silver, cited in
the medical literature, is a condition called Argyria. Argyria is primarily a cosmetic
condition characterized by a permanent, bluish discoloration of the skin. Argyria causes
no physical discomfort, and does not have any other known side effects. Your skin just
looks bluish-gray. In fact, the term "blue bloods," in reference to the royal
families of Europe, probably refers to a mild, argyrial condition caused by the constant
eating of food from silver place settings. It is interesting to note, however, that there
has never been a case of Argyria reported from the use of electro-colloidal silver, free
of salts or other impurities.
Argyria, while not being a deadly condition, certainly is undesirable. It is usually
caused by the massive intake of silver salts, such as silver nitrate, silver sulfate, and
silver chloride. To determine just how toxic these substances are, I contacted the Agency
for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry through their on-line information service at
(http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles). All of these silver salts are talked about
as toxins, but the only consequence of even high exposure in humans that is listed is
Argyria. EPA issues a "control code" for each toxic substance it tracks that can
cause human illness. Silver nitrate and silver sulfate have control codes, but silver
chloride does not. I received essentially the same information when I spoke with Dr.
Eidson at the Department of Epidemiology in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Apparently, the
government thinks silver and silver compounds are toxins that essentially have no
significant toxic effects other than the ability to discolor your skin.
Looking just a little deeper into the situation, I pulled out Lectures on Homeopathic
Materia Medica by J.T. Kent. In the section on the use of metallic silver as a homeopathic
remedy, there are 72 pages of indications (symptoms) that include actions on the nerves
and cartilage, as well as increased tendency toward emotional outbursts and mental
excitability. In fact, the list of symptoms is rather extensive. So, exposure to silver
may not kill you or cause organic disease, but that may not mean there is no toxicity.
Apparently, silver has the ability to act as a subtle irritant as well as lodge in certain
tissues. This suggests that taking colloidal silver every day may not be a good idea for
people who already have these symptoms.
In a study done, in part, by the Institute of Microbiology in Rome, Italy, and published
in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, in December, 1992, various forms of silver were
tested for their ability to kill micro-organisms. Pure electro-colloidal silver out
performed silver nitrate, silver chloride, and silver sulfadiazine as a broad spectrum
germicide. For all classes of bacteria, fungus, and mold samples tested, pure
electro-colloidal silver worked better, and at much lower concentrations. They concluded
that any additives reduced the effectiveness of the pure silver ion; the silver salts
being as much as 100 times less effective.
Electro-colloidal silver's effectiveness as a broad-spectrum germicide is directly related
to the number and size of the particles. The same volume of space taken up by one silver
particle .1 microns in size, will hold about 10,000 silver particles .001 microns in size.
This reduction in particle size not only allows for a greater distribution of the silver,
but it also greatly increases the total surface area of silver available for interacting
with the environment. These, plus the stability of the electrical charge, are the most
important factors when considering the effectiveness of colloidal silver.
While silver has been shown to be a very effective germicide, killing gram-negative
bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, molds, and viruses in laboratory experiments,
this does not mean that it will invariably cure disease conditions in the body caused by
these organisms. Colloidal silver is a fantastic adjunct to the home, but it is by no
means a "cure-all". The biggest obstacle to using colloidal silver as a
"home remedy" is the lack of information in the public domain on how to use it
effectively in any given situation. The FDA has tested colloidal silver extensively and
found that different micro-organisms succumb to its action at a wide variety of
concentrations and exposure times. If any of this information entered the public domain,
the FDA would consider their own research "unsubstantiated medical claims" and
reason enough to classify colloidal silver as a "new drug." The "new
drug" classification would be "required" because "new use
protocols" had been developed that did not exist before 1938.
Here is an example of the problem. It is now estimated that one in four women will develop
breast cancer in their lifetime. I have spoken to two women who claim to have cured
themselves of breast cancer with colloidal silver. They were both diagnosed by biopsy.
After the diagnosis, they took 2 teaspoons of colloidal silver a day until their surgery.
One took a home-made product, the other took a silver protein product. In both cases, the
biopsy of the removed breast tissue and lymph nodes was cancer free. The question is, will
colloidal silver work this well for all cases of breast cancer? Probably not, but in the
current legal and political environment, we may never know. No pharmaceutical company can
control or monopolize ownership of colloidal silver, so none of them will ever fund the
testing, which currently costs over $10 Million and takes 10 years. FDA says if you claim
that colloidal silver cures breast cancer, that would classify it as a new drug, and the
public cannot be given access to new drugs without proper testing. Using the FDA model, it
could cost the public $1-billion to "prove" to the FDA what the FDA already
knows about colloidal silver. Politics has definitely entered this picture. FDA does not
want to be exposed as an enforcer for the drug companies, or be seen as an agency clearly
not acting in the public's best interest. While these ideas are not new to some of us, it
would be a startling revelation if a large portion of the population began thinking this
way. FDA would certainly like to avoid this "public relations" embarrassment.
The fact is, FDA has never spent our tax dollars discovering something important, and then
published their findings for the benefit of the public at-large; especially when it
involved something that was powerful, safe, and inexpensive for the public to make for
themselves. Obviously, empowering the population to be self-reliant and frugal in relation
to their own healthcare is not the FDA's responsibility.
Colloidal silver clearly has some extraordinary capabilities and hundreds of legitimate
uses. But without standardization, quality control, and extensive medical testing, the
public will never know how best to use colloidal silver in a given situation. FDA may yet
try to restrict public access to colloidal silver, claiming it is unsafe, even though they
know how "safe and effective" it CAN BE when used properly. In the absence of
the release of this authoritative testing data, the public is left just experimenting and
groping for the answers. A big fight over the public's access to colloidal silver may be
looming because the cost of healthcare in this country is out of control, and the public
is looking for inexpensive solutions that work. In that sense, colloidal silver could be
"just what the doctor ordered."
Colloidal silver is apparently able to kill nearly all micro-organisms, including the
"friendly flora" your digestive system needs for proper function. I have spoken
with hundreds of people who have taken colloidal silver on a daily basis and have noticed
no digestive upset, even after prolonged use. I have also spoken to two individuals who
reported digestive upset after taking colloidal silver one time. So, in my experience, the
die-off of friendly flora is possible, but rare.
There are a number of strategies that can reduce the probability of digestive
interactions. The simplest one is to swish the colloidal silver around in your mouth for
30 seconds before swallowing. This promotes an absorption of the colloidal silver into the
body away from the intestinal tract. Another strategy is to take smaller doses, multiple
times per day, or with meals. Either way, if you do experience a die-off of friendly
flora, they can be re-populated by taking any of the acidophilus products on the market.
Septic tanks are like your home's intestinal tract. They only work when populated with
friendly flora. If you live in a rural area with your house on a septic system and you are
making your own colloidal silver, make sure you don't throw a lot of it down the sink or
your septic system may stop working properly. This problem can be handled by using a
product like RID-X periodically, which is a good idea anyway.
Colloidal silver is an extraordinary product. It can enhance your health and the health of
your family in hundreds of ways. Everyone should learn how to make high quality colloidal
silver, and have that capability in their home, in case the regulators restrict its
availability at some point in the future. This could be the best "health
insurance" policy you ever implemented!
If you buy one of the colloidal silver makers on the market, make sure it can make the
"yellow" particles. When you make it yourself, make sure you are making the
"yellow" particles. If you have any doubts about the quality of the product you
are making or buying, you can send samples to any of the following laboratories for
Once again....yellow colloidal
silver is NOT the best. Clear colored CS is much more efficacious.
For particle size testing with electron microscope, contact: EMS Laboratories, 117 West
Bellevue Drive, Pasadena, CA 91105 (818) 568-4065. Price will be under $200 per sample.
For concentration test (mg/L) of total dissolved solids, contact: Associated Laboratories,
806 North Batavia, Orange, CA 92668 (714) 771-6900 Call for prices.
For elemental analysis, including "Tyndall effect" and "precipitation"
test, contact: Kimball Laboratories, 600 East 11800 South, Draper, UT 84020 (801) 571-3695
Call for prices.
These companies are busy professionals who have no idea I am listing them in this article.
Please don't waste their time unless you plan to submit samples for testing with payment.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, on-line information service:
Kehoe, R. A. et al, 1940. J. Nutr. 19:579.
Kent, J.T. Lectures on Homeopathic Materia Medica, Jain Publishing Co. New Delhi, India,
Michaelis, L. The Effects of Ions in Colloidal Systems, Williams & Williams Co.
Baltimore, MD, 1925.
Ostwald, W. Practical Colloid Chemistry, Methuen & Co. Ltd. London, UK, 1926.
Simonetti, N. et al, Electrochemical Ag+ for Preservative Use. Applied and Environmental
Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology: Washington,1992, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp
The Association for Avanced Colloid Research, 232 NE Lincoln St. Ste."G",
Hillsboro, OR 97124, private conversations.
Borderland Sciences Research Foundation, PO Box 220, Bayside, CA 95442
Special thanks to Michael Theroux for valuable research and private consultation."