|Constant voltage generators
operate as follows. and why they aren't much good.
When an electrical source of voltage
that is fixed in value such as 27 or 36 volts (the voltage supplied by 3 or 4 - 9 volt
batteries in series connection) is used to generate ionic/colloidal silver, the voltage is
connected to the silver electrodes which are in the water. A small amount of current then begins to flow. At this
point the current is generally about one quarter of one milliampere (a milliampere is a measure of current flow).
This allows some of the silver ions to be
released from one electrode while hydrogen gas is formed and released from the other
electrode. As the silver is released into the water, the conductivity of the water
increases, allowing more current to flow. This in turn allows more silver ions to be
sintered off the electrode. So far so good. But what happens very quickly is
The increased current flow allows the metal to be deposited
into the water at a faster and faster rate as the conductivity of the water is increased
by more silver being released. This is a vicious cycle because in a very few minutes
the current passes the point where small colloidal particles are generated. Particle
size is determined by many factors; one of them being current flow or more
current density which is the ratio of current flow to electrode surface area. Once the flow exceeds this critical point, you must stop the
process or risk producing large particles. These particles are NOT
colloidal. They will sink to the bottom of the liquid and will generally not stay in
suspension. Constant voltage generators cannot be left on for long without producing
large particles. They are commonly called "Mud Makers".
If you ingest larger particles or silver salts in liquid such
as silver nitrate you take the chance of acquiring a condition know as argyria On the other hand, colloidal
silver particles are so small they do not cause this condition. They are
continually being excreted in your bodily waste. There has never been a case in
which argyria has been attributed to ingestion of ionic/colloidal silver. Please see our
link to "Where does the silver go when you drink it" by Dr. Roger Altman.
It can be accessed in our "Links and
Resources" link at the bottom
of most pages.
Current Generators work as follows: and why they
work so well.
The voltage source may be the same or higher as constant voltage
generators at the beginning of the operation but the similarity between constant
voltage and constant current generators diverges
rapidly. As the current flow begins to increase with increased water conductivity,
the "constant current"
regulator begins to reduce the voltage in order to keep the current at the desired amount
of flow. With the voltage being reduced in order to keep the current constant, the
silver particle size remains uniform. As the water becomes very conductive, the
voltage may be reduced to as little as 5 or 6 volts to maintain the desired current
flow. With this type circuit, one may leave the generator connected to the
electrodes and not worry that "runaway"
will occur. You may leave the generator on until the strength of silver in parts per
million (PPM) is reached and be assured the
particle sizes are uniform and colloidal. Of course we are speaking of practical
limits here. This is the secret of repeatable production of colloidal silver. Constant
current equals constant size particles. Typically, CS made over 15 PPM will
usually agglomerate. Our
automatic generator (SG6 Auto) with stirring motor can make up to 20 PPM
without agglomeration under ideal conditions.
If the particles are as small as can be made and also
colloidal, the water will be clear and will also show the Tyndall effect. If they
are larger, the water color will shift toward yellow because of agglomeration. Still
larger particles appear red; then green and the blue ones are the largest. The
proper color for colloidal silver water is clear. If it is clear and has a weak
Tyndall effect, the particle size is as small as can be made. That is the
way to know you have colloidal silver water. Make it yourself and then you will know
and see what we mean! The proof is in the clear color and the Tyndall effect.
Of course you can also test it using the
PWT meter to
determine the total PPM.
With our SG6 automatic generator you just set
the dial to the PPM (parts per million) desired and wait until the unit
shuts off and you will have the best colloidal silver that can possibly be
made. It will always be crystal clear and have a weak Tyndall effect.
You may observe this effect by directing a pocket laser beam or strong
narrow flashlight beam through the liquid after the dispersion
phase. The beam will be visible as the particles are evenly dispersed, allowing the
light to reflect off them. This is called the Tyndall effect.
The bottom line is this:
Make sure your CS is clear, not yellow colored and you will be getting the
largest amount of individual silver particles per unit measure of water.
As an example, 1 milligram of silver dropped into 1 liter of water is equal
to 1 part per million by definition. If you could turn that 1
milligram into 1 million individual silver particles and disperse it in the
water, the PPM is still 1. However you now have many more
individual pieces of silver in the water to attack bacteria and viruses.
If you could divide that 1 milligram of silver into so many pieces they
barely reflected any light, then you would have the optimum amount of silver
per unit measure of water. Typically those particles are about .001 to
.005 microns in diameter. A micron is one millionth of a meter (or 26
millionths of an inch) so .001 microns is about 1/1000 of 1/1,000,000 of a
meter. Pretty small particles indeed. Our generators
typically produce particle sizes ranging from .001 to .005 microns.
If particle size increases beyond that, the particles will begin to
reflect light and the first color seen will be yellow. That is called
agglomeration. See our electron microscopy photos page to see proof of
the small particle size our generators can produce.
Another factor in colloid
production is the surface area of the electrodes. If one uses wire as the electrodes as
most manufacturers do, the surface area is quite small. As an example, 14 gauge wire,
which is what most units are sold with, has a surface area of approximately .8 square
inches if it is submersed 4 inches in the water. Two wires will give approximately 1.6
square inches of wetted surface area.
Our electrodes are .25 inches wide and .013 inches thick. If they
are submersed 4 inches, the total surface area will be 4.21 square inches. This is 2.5
times the wetted surface area of 14 gauge wires. Therefore the current density of 14 gauge
wires will be 2.5 times higher than the electrodes we use. What this means is, the amount
of silver released using our electrodes will be so spread out over the surface of the
electrodes, it will be releasing at a slower pace. If the silver is released more slowly,
the particles are smaller. They will also be more uniform in size because of the constant
current regulator and stirring. The result is a more uniform, small particle size colloid.
If one used a constant voltage source, such as the typical box with
three batteries or a machine that uses a wall transformer to provide a constant DC
voltage, the silver would begin to be ripped off the wire electrodes very quickly because
of the high current density which continues to increase during production. The resulting
silver particles would be a non-uniform size and would be composed of small to large size
particles as the current began to rise with time. The color of the water would be yellow,
red, brown or muddy looking and silver sludge will begin to drop out and fall to the
bottom. The particles of silver are getting too large as the current begins to run
away and rise dramatically.